Low back pain (chronic)
Low back pain is pain, muscle tension, or stiffness localised below the costal margin and above the inferior gluteal folds, with or without leg pain (sciatica), and is defined as chronic when it persists for 12 weeks or more (see definition of low back pain [acute]). Non-specific low back pain is pain not attributed to a recognisable pathology (such as infection, tumour, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, fracture, or inflammation). This review excludes chronic low back pain with symptoms or signs at presentation that suggest a specific underlying condition. People solely with sciatica (lumbosacral radicular syndrome) and pain due to herniated discs, or both, are also excluded. People in this review have chronic low back pain (>12 weeks' duration).
The Surgical Management of Degenerative Lumbar Spondylolisthesis: A Systematic Review. ( 18 September 2014 )
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