1. Headache Classification Cubcommittee of the International Headache Society. The international classification of headache disorders. 3rd ed (beta version). Cephalalgia 2013;33:629–808. [Pubmed]

2. Katusic S, Williams DB, Beard CM, et al. Epidemiology and clinical features of idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia and glossopharyngeal neuralgia: similarities and differences, Rochester, Minnesota, 1945–1984. Neuroepidemiology 1991;10:276–281. [Pubmed]

3. Zakrzewska JM. Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of trigeminal neuralgia. Clin J Pain 2002;18:14–21. [Pubmed]

4. Tölle T, Dukes E, Sodosky A. Patient burden of trigeminal neuralgia: results from a cross-sectional survey of health state impairment and treatment patterns in six European countries. Pain Pract 2006;6:153–160. [Pubmed]

5. Zakrzewska JM, Padfield D. The patient’s journey through trigeminal neuralgia. Pain: Clinical Updates 2014;22:1–8.

6. Zakrzewska JM, Hamlyn PJ. Facial pain. In: Crombie IK, Croft PR, Linton SJ, et al, eds. Epidemiology of pain. Seattle: IAS Press, 1999:171–202.

7. Katusic S, Beard CM, Bergstralh E, et al. Incidence and clinical features of trigeminal neuralgia, Rochester, Minnesota, 1945–1984. Ann Neurol 1990;27:89–95. [Pubmed]

8. Munoz M, Dumas M, Boutros-Toni F, et al. A neuro-epidemiologic survey in a Limousin town. Rev Neurol (Paris) 1988;144:266–271. [Pubmed]

9. Hall GC, Carroll D, Parry D, et al. Epidemiology and treatment of neuropathic pain: the UK primary care perspective. Pain 2006;122:156–162. [Pubmed]

10. Koopman JS, Dieleman JP, Juygen FJ, et al. Incidence of facial pain in the general population. Pain 2009;147:122–127. [Pubmed]

11. Mueller D, Obermann M, Yoon MS, et al. Prevalence of trigeminal neuralgia and persistent idiopathic facial pain: a population-based study. Cephalalgia 2011;31:1542–1548. [Pubmed]

12. Devor M, Amir R, Rappaport ZH. Pathophysiology of trigeminal neuralgia: the ignition hypothesis. Clin J Pain 2002;18:4–13. [Pubmed]

13. Zakrzewska JM. Trigeminal neuralgia. In: Zakrzewska JM, Harrison SD, eds. Assessment and management of orofacial pain, 1st ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier Sciences; 2002:267–370.

14. IObermann M, Yoon MS, Ese D, et al. Impaired trigeminal nociceptive processing in patients with trigeminal neuralgia. Neurology 2007;69:835–841. [Pubmed]

15. DeSouza DD, Hodaie M, Davis KD. Abnormal trigeminal nerve microstructure and brain white matter in idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia. Pain 2013;155:37–44. [Pubmed]

16. Pan SL, Chen LS, Yen MF, et al. Increased risk of stroke after trigeminal neuralgia — a population-based follow-up study. Cephalalgia 2011;31:937–942. [Pubmed]

17. Pan SL, Yen MF, Chiu YH, et al. Increased risk of trigeminal neuralgia after hypertension: a population-based study. Neurology 2011;77:1605–1610. [Pubmed]

18. Rothman KJ, Monson RR. Survival in trigeminal neuralgia. J Chronic Dis 1973;26:303–309. [Pubmed]

19. Rushton JG, MacDonald HN. Trigeminal neuralgia: special considerations of nonsurgical treatment. JAMA 1957;165:437–440. [Pubmed]

20. Zakrzewska JM, Patsalos PN. Long-term cohort study comparing medical (oxcarbazepine) and surgical management of intractable trigeminal neuralgia. Pain 2002;95:259–266. [Pubmed]

21. Zakrzewska JM, Lopez BC, Kim SE, et al. Patient reports of satisfaction after microvascular decompression and partial sensory rhizotomy for trigeminal neuralgia. Neurosurgery 2005;56:1304–1311. [Pubmed]

22. Zakrzewska JM, Palmer J, Elttlin DA, et al. Novel design for a phase IIa placebo-controlled, double-blind randomized withdrawal study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of CNV1014802 in patients with trigeminal neuralgia. Trials 2013:14:402. [Pubmed]

23. Wiffen PJ, Derry S, Moore RA, et al. Carbamazepine for acute and chronic pain. In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 8, 2013. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Search date 2010. In addition, 41 medical journals were hand searched for a previous version of this review. Additional reports were identified from the reference list of the retrieved papers, and by contacting investigators. [Pubmed]

24. McQuay H, Carroll D, Jadad AR, et al. Anticonvulsant drugs for management of pain: a systematic review. BMJ 1995;311:1047–1052. [Pubmed]

25. Taylor JC, Brauer S, Espir MLE. Long-term treatment of trigeminal neuralgia with carbamazepine. Postgrad Med J 1981;57:16–18. [Pubmed]

26. Di Stefano G, La Cesa S, Truini A, et al. Natural history and outcome of 200 outpatients with classical trigeminal neuralgia treated with carbamazepine or oxcarbazepine in a tertiary centre for neuropathic pain. J Headache Pain 2014;15:34. [Pubmed]

27. Sweetman SC, ed. Martindale: the complete drug reference. 33rd ed. London: Pharmaceutical Press, 2002.

28. Trigeminal neuralgia. Available online at: (last accessed 4 September 2007).

29. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Neuropathic pain — pharmacological management. The pharmacological management of neuropathic pain in adults in non specialist settings guideline 173. November 2013. Available at (last accessed 2 July 2014). [Pubmed]

30. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. The Epilepsies: the diagnosis and management of the epilepsies in adults and children in primary and secondary care. January 2012. Available at (last accessed 2 July 2014).

31. Ferrell PB, Jr, McLeod HL. Carbamazepine, HLA-B*1502 and risk of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis: US FDA recommendations. Pharmacogenomics 2008;9:1543–1546. [Pubmed]

32. Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency. Drug safety update: volume 1, issue 9. April 2008. Available at (last accessed 14 March 2014).

33. Liebel JT, Menger N, Langohr H. Oxcarbazepine in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. Nervenheilkunde 2001;20:461–465. [In German]

34. Beydoun A. Safety and efficacy of oxcarbazepine: results of randomized, double-blind trials. Pharmacotherapy 2000;20:152S–158S. [Pubmed]

35. Wiffen P, Derry S, Moore RA. Lamotrigine for acute and chronic pain. In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 8, 2013. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Search date 2011. In addition, 41 medical journals were hand searched. Additional reports were identified from the reference list of the retrieved papers, and by contacting investigators. [Pubmed]

36. Zakrzewska JM, Chaudhry Z, Nurmikko TJ, et al. Lamotrigine (lamictal) in refractory trigeminal neuralgia: results from a double-blind placebo controlled crossover study. Pain 1997;73:223–230. [Pubmed]

37. Leandri M, Lundardi G, Inglese M, et al. Lamotrigine in trigeminal neuralgia secondary to multiple sclerosis. J Neurol 2000;247:556–558. [Pubmed]

38. Bittar GT, Graff-Radford SB. The effects of streptomycin/lidocaine block on trigeminal neuralgia: a double blind crossover placebo controlled study. Headache 1993;33:155–160. [Pubmed]

39. De Santi L, Annunziata P. Symptomatic cranial neuralgias in multiple sclerosis: clinical features and treatment. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2012; 114:101–107. [Pubmed]

40. Lemos L, Flores S, Oliveira P, et al. Gabapentin supplemented with ropivacain block of trigger points improves pain control and quality of life in trigeminal neuralgia patients when compared with gabapentin alone. Clin J Pain 2008;24:64–75. [Pubmed]

41. Yang M, Zhou M, He L, et al. Non-antiepileptic drugs for trigeminal neuralgia. In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 8, 2013. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Songs, Ltd. Search date 2011. [Pubmed]

42. Zakrzewska JM, Coakham HB. Microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia: update. Curr Opin Neurol 2012;25:296–301. [Pubmed]

43. Akram H, Mirza B, Kitchen N, et al. Proposal for evaluating the quality of reports of surgical interventions in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia: the Surgical Trigeminal Neuralgia Score. Neurosurg Focus 2013;35:E3. [Pubmed]

44. Barker FG 2nd, Jannetta PJ, Bissonette DJ, et al. The long-term outcome of microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia. N Engl J Med 1996;334:1077–1083. [Pubmed]

45. Piatt JH Jr, Wilkins RH. Microvascular decompression for tic douloureux. Neurosurgery 1984;15:456. [Pubmed]

46. Zakrzewska JM, Thomas DG. Patient's assessment of outcome after three surgical procedures for the management of trigeminal neuralgia. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 1993;122:225–230. [Pubmed]

47. McLaughlin MR, Jannetta PJ, Clyde BL, et al. Microvascular decompression of cranial nerves: lessons learned after 4400 operations. J Neurosurg 1999;90:1–8. [Pubmed]

48. Linskey ME, Ratanatharathorne V, Penagaricano J. A prospective cohort study of microvascular decompression and Gamma Knife surgery in patients with trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurosurg 2008;109:160–172. [Pubmed]

49. Pollock BE,Schoeberl KA. Prospective comparison of posterior fossa exploration and stereotactic radiosurgery dorsal root entry zone target as primary surgery for patients with idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia. Neurosurgery 2010;67:633–638. [Pubmed]

50. Sindou M, Mertens P. Microvascular decompression (MVD) in trigeminal and glosso-vago-pharyngeal neuralgias. A twenty year experience. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 1993;58(Suppl):168-170. [Pubmed]

51. Ariai MS, Mallory GW, Pollock BE. Outcomes after microvascular decompression for patients with trigeminal neuralgia and suspected multiple sclerosis. World Neurosurg 2014;81:599–603. [Pubmed]

52. Broggi G, Ferroli P, Franzini A, et al. Operative findings and outcomes of microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia in 35 patients affected by multiple sclerosis. Neurosurgery 2004;55:830–838. [Pubmed]

53. Sandell T, Eide PK. The effect of microvascular decompression in patients with multiple sclerosis and trigeminal neuralgia. Neurosurgery 2010;67:749–753. [Pubmed]

54. Lopez BC, Hamlyn PJ, Zakrzewska JM. Systematic review of ablative neurosurgical techniques for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. Neurosurgery 2004;54:973–982. [Pubmed]

55. Lim JNW, Ayiku L. The clinical efficacy and safety of stereotactic radiosurgery (gamma knife) in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. 2004. Available online at: (last accessed 4 September2007). Search date 2004; primary sources Biosis, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (CCTR), The Cochrane Library, CRD Databases (DARE, NHS EED, HTA), Current Controlled Trials, Embase, Medical Research Council (MRC) Clinical Trials Register, Medline, National Research Register, PreMedline, Science Citation Index, and TRIP Database.

56. Lopez BC, Hamlyn PJ, Zakrzewska JM, et al. Stereotactic radiosurgery for primary trigeminal neuralgia: state of the evidence and recommendations for future reports. J Neurol Neurosurg Psych 2004;75:1019–1024. [Pubmed]

57. Zakrzewska JM, Akram H. Neurosurgical interventions for the treatment of classical trigeminal neuralgia. In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 8, 2013. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Search date 2010. [Pubmed]

58. Flickinger JC, Pollock BE, Kondziolka D, et al. Does increased nerve length within the treatment volume improve trigeminal neuralgia radiosurgery? A prospective double-blind, randomized study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2001;51:449–454. [Pubmed]

59. Régis J, Metellus P, Hayashi M, et al. Prospective controlled trial of gamma knife surgery for essential trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurosurg 2006;104:913–924. [Pubmed]

60. Tuleasca C, Carron R, Ressequier N, et al. Multiple sclerosis-related trigeminal neuralgia: a prospective series of 43 patients treated with Gamma Knife surgery with more than 1 year of follow-up. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 2014;92:203–210. [Pubmed]

61. Weller M, Marshall K, Lovato JF, et al. Single-institution retrospective series of gamma knife radiosurgery in the treatment of multiple sclerosis-related trigeminal neuralgia: factors that predict efficacy. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 2014;92:53–58. [Pubmed]

62. Zorro O, Lobato-Polo J, Kano H, et al. Gamma knife radiosurgery for multiple sclerosis-related trigeminal neuralgia. Neurology 2009;73:1149–1154. [Pubmed]

63. Park KJ, Kondziolka D, Berkowitz O, et al. Repeat gamma knife radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia. Neurosurgery 2012;70:295–305. [Pubmed]

64. Kimball BY, Sorenson JM, Cunningham D. Repeat Gamma Knife surgery for trigeminal neuralgia: long-term results. J Neurosurg 2010;113(suppl):178–183. [Pubmed]

65. Aubuchon AC, Chan MD, Lovato JF, et al. Repeat gamma knife radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2011;81:1059–1065. [Pubmed]

66. Pollock BE, Foote RL, Link MJ, et al. Repeat radiosurgery for idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2005;61:192–195. [Pubmed]

67. Udupi BP, Chouhan RS, Dash HH, et al. Comparative evaluation of percutaneous retrogasserian glycerol rhizolysis and radiofrequency thermocoagulation techniques in the management of trigeminal neuralgia. Neurosurgery 2012;70:407–412. [Pubmed]

68. Erdine S, Ozyalcin NS, Cimen A, et al. Comparison of pulsed radiofrequency with conventional radiofrequency in the treatment of idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia. Eur J Pain 2007;11:309–313. [Pubmed]

69. Li X, Ni J, Yang L, et al. A prospective study of Gasserian ganglion pulsed radiofrequency combined with continuous radiofrequency for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. J Clin Neurosci 2012;19:824–828. [Pubmed]

70. Broggi G, Franzini A, Lasio G, et al. Long-term results of percutaneous retrogasserion thermorhizotomy for 'essential' trigeminal neuralgia: considerations in 1000 consecutive patients. Neurosurgery 1990;26:783–787. [Pubmed]

71. Kanpolat Y, Savas A, Bekar A, et al. Percutaneous controlled radiofrequency trigeminal rhizotomy for the treatment of idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia: 25-year experience in 1,600 patients. Neurosurgery 2001;48:524–534. [Pubmed]

72. Nugent GR. Technique and results of 800 percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulations for trigeminal neuralgia. Appl Neurophysiol 1982;45:504–507. [Pubmed]

73. Taha JM, Tew JM Jr. Comparison of surgical treatments for trigeminal neuralgia: reevaluation of radiofrequency rhizotomy. Neurosurgery 1996;38:865–871. [Pubmed]

74. Kondziolka D, Lunsford LD. Percutaneous retrogasserian glycerol rhizotomy for trigeminal neuralgia: technique and expectations. Neurosurg Focus 2005;18:E7. [Pubmed]

75. Pollock BE. Percutaneous retrogasserian glycerol rhizotomy for patients with idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia: a prospective analysis of factors related to pain relief. J Neurosurg 2005;102:223–228. [Pubmed]

76. North RB, Kidd DH, Piantadosi S, et al. Percutaneous retrogasserion glycerol rhizotomy. Predictors of success and failure in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurosurg 1990;72:851–856. [Pubmed]

77. Young RF. Glycerol rhizolysis for treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurosurg 1988;69:39–45. [Pubmed]

78. Lichtor T, Mullan JF. A 10-year follow-up review of percutaneous microcompression of the trigeminal ganglion. J Neurosurg 1990;72:49–54. [Pubmed]

79. Baabor MG, Perez-Limonte L. Percutaneous balloon compression of the gasserian ganglion for the treatment of trigeminalneuralgia: personal experience of 206 patients. Acta Neurochir Suppl 2011;108:251–254. [Pubmed]

80. Kouzounias K, Schechtmann G, Lind G, et al. Factors that influence outcome of percutaneous balloon compression in the treatment oftrigeminal neuralgia. Neurosurgery. 2010;67:925–934. [Pubmed]

81. Brown JA. Percutaneous balloon compression for trigeminal neuralgia. Clin Neurosurg 2009;56:73–78. [Pubmed]

82. Chen JF, Tu PH, Lee ST. Repeated percutaneous balloon compression for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia: a long-term study. World Neurosurg 2012;77:352–356. [Pubmed]

83. Bender M, Pradilla G, Batra S, et al. Effectiveness of repeat glycerol rhizotomy in treating recurrent trigeminal neuralgia. Neurosurgery 2012;70:1125–1133. [Pubmed]

84. Mohammad-Mohammadi A,Recinos PF, Lee JH, et al. Surgical outcomes of trigeminal neuralgia in patients with multiple sclerosis. Neurosurgery 2013;73:941–950. [Pubmed]

85. Mallory GW, Atkinson JL, Stien KJ, et al. Outcomes after percutaneous surgery for patients with multiple sclerosis-related trigeminal neuralgia. Neurosurgery 2012;71:581-586. [Pubmed]